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odroid xu4 with nixos

11 Feb 2016

NixOS project logo

motivation

nixos support for 'armv7l' is getting much better in general. in this postings i want to show a few insights on how to get nixos running on any ARM board with general linux support. much of the multi-platoform stuff was probably created by viric and later extended by dezgeg.

Odroid XU4 board

nixpkgs

a short look into: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/master/pkgs/stdenv/linux/default.nix shows:

  bootstrapFiles =
    if customBootstrapFiles != null then customBootstrapFiles
    else if system == "i686-linux" then import ./bootstrap/i686.nix
    else if system == "x86_64-linux" then import ./bootstrap/x86_64.nix
    else if system == "armv5tel-linux" then import ./bootstrap/armv5tel.nix
    else if system == "armv6l-linux" then import ./bootstrap/armv6l.nix
    else if system == "armv7l-linux" then import ./bootstrap/armv7l.nix
    else if system == "mips64el-linux" then import ./bootstrap/loongson2f.nix
    else abort "unsupported platform for the pure Linux stdenv";

plenty ARM variants are already used along with nixos!

the essential parts to run NixOS on ARM:

kernel

since i'm not using the GPU i've decided to try the 4.2.0 kernel:

http://odroid.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=en:xu4_building_kernel

installing DRM crap

ODROID-XU4 must have the secure boot enabled boot loader. There are four components of boot loader:

install the binary blobs using this steps:

  1. download the needed files form here:

    http://download.tizen.org/snapshots/tizen/tv/latest/images/arm-wayland/tv-boot-armv7l-odroidxu3/

  2. then deploy them to the empty sd-card (eMMC offsets differ by one sector, see below):

    # zero the first 4000 secotors
    dd if=/dev/zero bs=512 count=4000 of=/dev/sdd
    # install the 4 binary blobs
    dd if=bl1.bin.hardkernel bs=512 seek=1 of=/dev/sdd
    dd if=bl2.bin.hardkernel.1mb_uboot  bs=512 seek=31 of=/dev/sdd
    dd if=../u-boot-dtb.bin bs=512 seek=63 of=/dev/sdd
    dd if=tzsw.bin.hardkernel  bs=512 seek=2111 of=/dev/sdd

XU4 flash specification

sd_fuse: sd_fusing: Add Embedded MMC (eMMC) support
Odroid boards can boot from either a SD/MMC or an eMMC. The iROM
load the bootloader binaries (first and second stage bootloader,
trustzone, DRM, etc) from the first sectors of the boot device.

An SD exposes all its physical address space as just one device
(e.g: /dev/mmcblk0) so its first sectors are just located on that
device but the eMMC split its physical address space in different
virtual devices (e.g: mmcblk0boot0, mmcblk0boot1, mmcblk0rpmb and
mmcblk0). So the eMMC first sectors are not located on the device
but on the virtual ${device}boot0.

Also, the addresses are at a different offset for SD/MMC and eMMC
so special care has to be taken when flashing images to an eMMC
since just dd'ing an image to the block device won't work.

The binaries written and their offset on both a SD/MMC and eMMC are:

+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+
|                               eMMC                               |
+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+
| Binary                          | Start sector | Length (sector) |
+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+
|                                 |              |                 |
| bl1.HardKernel (BL1/DRM)        |    0         |   30            |
|                                 |              |                 |
| bl2.HardKernel (BL2/SPL)        |   30         |   32            |
|                                 |              |                 |
| u-boot.bin (U-Boot)             |   62         | 1024            |
|                                 |              |                 |
| tzsw.HardKernel (TrustZone S/W) | 2110         |  312            |
+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+

+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+
|                              SD/MMC                              |
+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+
| Binary                          | Start sector | Length (sector) |
+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+
|                                 |              |                 |
| bl1.HardKernel (BL1/DRM)        |    1         |   30            |
|                                 |              |                 |
| bl2.HardKernel (BL2/SPL)        |   31         |   32            |
|                                 |              |                 |
| u-boot.bin (U-Boot)             |   63         | 1024            |
|                                 |              |                 |
| tzsw.HardKernel (TrustZone S/W) | 2111         |  312            |
+---------------------------------+--------------+-----------------+

Signed-off-by: Javier Martinez Canillas <javier.martinez@collabora.co.uk>

uboot

uboot is a boot loader and if you manage to install the latest version, which right now is 2016.01-rc1, you will get support for extlinux.

extlinux features a grub like boot-menu:

Retrieving file: /extlinux/extlinux.conf
3543 bytes read in 14 ms (247.1 KiB/s)
------------------------------------------------------------
1:      NixOS - Default
2:      NixOS - Configuration 7 (2015-12-02 05:32 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
3:      NixOS - Configuration 6 (2015-12-02 05:09 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
4:      NixOS - Configuration 5 (2015-12-02 04:01 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
5:      NixOS - Configuration 4 (2015-11-29 02:32 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
6:      NixOS - Configuration 3 (2015-11-28 17:33 - 15.09.git.ba8f33f)
Enter choice: 1:        NixOS - Default

u-boot patch

diff --git a/common/cmd_pxe.c b/common/cmd_pxe.c
index 080b376..67dd647 100644
--- a/common/cmd_pxe.c
+++ b/common/cmd_pxe.c
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 #include "menu.h"
  #include "cli.h"
   
   -#define MAX_TFTP_PATH_LEN 127
   +#define MAX_TFTP_PATH_LEN 512
    
     const char *pxe_default_paths[] = {
      #ifdef CONFIG_SYS_SOC

uboot source

odroid xu4 uboot can be found here:

http://odroid.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=en:xu3_building_u-boot#installation.

odroidxu3-v2012.07 is quite old so i tried 'master':

http://git.denx.de/?p=u-boot.git;a=blob;f=doc/README.distro;hb=refs/heads/master

compilation

how to build the custom u-boot-dtb.bin for the XU4? simply use 'nix-env':
nix-env -qaP | grep odroid
ubootOdroidXU4           uboot-odroid_xu4-fa8883a1e39a20e72aaa5093af0c80062cb95757

install it:

nix-env -iA ubootOdroidXU4

then look at the paths and copy the u-boot-dtb.bin from there. alternatively download it from here:

https://nixcloud.io/downloads/armv7l/u-boot-dtb.bin

5f32e455af6ef3d316b2a9d7ddc25a6c84959f955d96039e57c05244fad2b898 u-boot-dtb.bin

installing u-boot on the eMMC

using u-boot itself to flush u-boot onto a eMMC, described in the steps below, you will require a working sd-card image with the wanted new u-boot-dtb.bin on it:

  1. first upgrade the u-boot on the sd-card. then

  2. then use this sd-card's u-boot to boot the xu4 and finally copy that u-boot from the sd-card to the eMMC using the u-boot shell.

to place the new u-boot on the eMMC copy the first 30MB of the image to a sd-card. then boot from it and attach the USB-UART and right after booting, press 'return' to get to a prompt with this label: ODROID-XU3 #, then type these commands:

ODROID-XU3 # mmc dev 0
ODROID-XU3 # mmc read 0x50000000 0x1 0xa3e
ODROID-XU3 # mmc dev 1 1
ODROID-XU3 # mmc write 0x50000000 0x0 0xa3e
ODROID-XU3 # mmc dev 1 0

this will copy the u-boot from the sd-card into the eMMC. afterwards poweroff and remove the sd-card. you can now use the new u-boot from the eMMC. next copy the image to the eMMC and you are ready to go!

xu4 boot messages

U-Boot 2016.01-rc1 (Dec 02 2015 - 04:40:51 +0000) for ODROID-XU3

CPU:   Exynos5422 @ 800 MHz
Model: Odroid XU3 based on EXYNOS5422
Board: Odroid XU3 based on EXYNOS5422
Type:  xu4
DRAM:  2 GiB
__of_translate_address: Bad cell count for gpx0
MMC:   EXYNOS DWMMC: 0, EXYNOS DWMMC: 1
*** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   No ethernet found.
Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0 
switch to partitions #0, OK
mmc0 is current device
Scanning mmc 0:1...
Found /extlinux/extlinux.conf
Retrieving file: /extlinux/extlinux.conf
3543 bytes read in 14 ms (247.1 KiB/s)
------------------------------------------------------------
1:      NixOS - Default
2:      NixOS - Configuration 7 (2015-12-02 05:32 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
3:      NixOS - Configuration 6 (2015-12-02 05:09 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
4:      NixOS - Configuration 5 (2015-12-02 04:01 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
5:      NixOS - Configuration 4 (2015-11-29 02:32 - 15.09.git.ba8f33fM)
6:      NixOS - Configuration 3 (2015-11-28 17:33 - 15.09.git.ba8f33f)
Enter choice: 1:        NixOS - Default
Retrieving file: /extlinux/../nixos/fy2rhpvfwn27w6qr2w8z9s60zbbxdxf5-initrd-initrd
3495632 bytes read in 322 ms (10.4 MiB/s)
Retrieving file: /extlinux/../nixos/kw3x6kdwhd834j6adpi5bk2m4akj5kzx-linux-4.2.0-5eb40d45b291ee129cbfac2073f1ca7aa32ff4c5-zImage
5767144 bytes read in 515 ms (10.7 MiB/s)
append: systemConfig=/nix/store/v7anhi1v9rvkcdy5pylspqjcdzslm5gi-nixos-15.09.git.ba8f33fM init=/nix/store/v7anhi1v9rvkcdy5pylspqjcdzslm5gi-nixos-15.09.git.ba8f33fM/init loglevel=4
Retrieving file: /extlinux/../nixos/kw3x6kdwhd834j6adpi5bk2m4akj5kzx-linux-4.2.0-5eb40d45b291ee129cbfac2073f1ca7aa32ff4c5-dtbs/exynos5422-odroidxu4.dtb
45419 bytes read in 70 ms (632.8 KiB/s)
Kernel image @ 0x42000000 [ 0x000000 - 0x57ffe8 ]
### Loading init Ramdisk from Legacy Image at 43300000 ...
   Image Name:   
   Image Type:   ARM Linux RAMDisk Image (gzip compressed)
   Data Size:    3495568 Bytes = 3.3 MiB
   Load Address: 00000000
   Entry Point:  00000000
   Verifying Checksum ... OK
## Flattened Device Tree blob at 43000000
   Booting using the fdt blob at 0x43000000
   Loading Ramdisk to 4fcaa000, end 4ffff690 ... OK
   Loading Device Tree to 4fc9b000, end 4fca916a ... OK

Starting kernel ...

[    0.000000] L2C: failed to init: -19
[    1.856637] s3c-rtc 101e0000.rtc:: failed to find rtc source clock

<<< NixOS Stage 1 >>>

loading module dm_mod...
running udev...
starting version 217
starting device mapper and LVM...
checking /dev/mmcblk0p2...
fsck (busybox 1.23.2, )
[fsck.ext4 (1) -- /mnt-root/] fsck.ext4 -a /dev/mmcblk0p2
/dev/mmcblk0p2: clean, 69438/209664 files, 454448/843520 blocks
mounting /dev/mmcblk0p2 on /...

<<< NixOS Stage 2 >>>

running activation script...
setting up /etc...
starting systemd...

Welcome to NixOS 15.09.git.ba8f33fM (Dingo)!

[  OK  ] Reached target Swap.
         Expecting device dev-mmcblk0p1.device...
         Expecting device dev-ttySAC2.device...
[  OK  ] Reached target Remote File Systems (Pre).
[  OK  ] Reached target Remote File Systems.
[  OK  ] Reached target Paths.
[  OK  ] Created slice Root Slice.
[  OK  ] Created slice User and Session Slice.
[  OK  ] Listening on /dev/initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
[  OK  ] Listening on Delayed Shutdown Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
[  OK  ] Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on udev Control Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on Journal Socket.
[  OK  ] Created slice System Slice.
         Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems...
[  OK  ] Created slice system-getty.slice.
[  OK  ] Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
         Starting Setup Virtual Console...
         Starting Load Kernel Modules...
         Mounting POSIX Message Queue File System...
         Starting Create list of required st... nodes for the current kernel...
         Mounting Debug File System...
         Starting udev Coldplug all Devices...
         Starting Journal Service...
[  OK  ] Reached target Slices.
[  OK  ] Mounted Debug File System.
[  OK  ] Mounted POSIX Message Queue File System.
[  OK  ] Started Remount Root and Kernel File Systems.
[  OK  ] Started Load Kernel Modules.
[  OK  ] Started Create list of required sta...ce nodes for the current kernel.
         Starting Create Static Device Nodes in /dev...
         Mounting Configuration File System...
         Starting Apply Kernel Variables...
         Starting Load/Save Random Seed...
         Starting Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown...
[  OK  ] Mounted Configuration File System.
[  OK  ] Started udev Coldplug all Devices.
         Starting udev Wait for Complete Device Initialization...
[  OK  ] Started Load/Save Random Seed.
[  OK  ] Started Apply Kernel Variables.
[  OK  ] Started Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown.
[  OK  ] Started Create Static Device Nodes in /dev.
         Starting udev Kernel Device Manager...
[  OK  ] Reached target Local File Systems (Pre).
[  OK  ] Started Setup Virtual Console.
[  OK  ] Started Journal Service.
         Starting Trigger Flushing of Journal to Persistent Storage...
[  OK  ] Started Trigger Flushing of Journal to Persistent Storage.
[  OK  ] Started udev Kernel Device Manager.
[  OK  ] Found device /dev/ttySAC2.
[  OK  ] Found device /dev/mmcblk0p1.
         Mounting /boot...
[  OK  ] Mounted /boot.
[  OK  ] Started udev Wait for Complete Device Initialization.
[  OK  ] Reached target Local File Systems.
         Starting Create Volatile Files and Directories...
[  OK  ] Reached target System Initialization.
[  OK  ] Listening on D-Bus System Message Bus Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on Nix Daemon Socket.
[  OK  ] Reached target Sockets.
[  OK  ] Reached target Timers.
[  OK  ] Reached target Basic System.
         Starting SSH Daemon...
         Starting NTP Daemon...
         Starting Cron Daemon...
         Starting CPU Frequency Governor Setup...
         Starting Firewall...
         Starting SCSI Link Power Management Policy...
         Starting Kernel Log Daemon...
[  OK  ] Started Kernel Log Daemon.
         Starting Store Sound Card State...
         Starting Name Service Cache Daemon...
         Starting Permit User Sessions...
         Starting Hardware RNG Entropy Gatherer Daemon...
[  OK  ] Started Hardware RNG Entropy Gatherer Daemon.
[  OK  ] Started Create Volatile Files and Directories.
[  OK  ] Started Cron Daemon.
[  OK  ] Started CPU Frequency Governor Setup.
[  OK  ] Started SCSI Link Power Management Policy.
[  OK  ] Started Store Sound Card State.
[  OK  ] Started Permit User Sessions.
[  OK  ] Started NTP Daemon.
         Starting Getty on tty1...
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty1.
         Starting Serial Getty on ttySAC2...
[  OK  ] Started Serial Getty on ttySAC2.
[  OK  ] Reached target Login Prompts.
[  OK  ] Started SSH Daemon.
[  OK  ] Started Name Service Cache Daemon.
[  OK  ] Reached target Host and Network Name Lookups.
[  OK  ] Reached target User and Group Name Lookups.
         Starting Login Service...
[FAILED] Failed to start Firewall.
See "systemctl status firewall.service" for details.
         Starting D-Bus System Message Bus...
[  OK  ] Started D-Bus System Message Bus.
[  OK  ] Reached target Network (Pre).
[  OK  ] Reached target All Network Interfaces.
         Starting DHCP Client...
         Starting Networking Setup...
[  OK  ] Started Login Service.
         Stopping Name Service Cache Daemon...
[  OK  ] Stopped Name Service Cache Daemon.
[  OK  ] Started Networking Setup.
         Starting Extra networking commands....
         Starting Name Service Cache Daemon...
[  OK  ] Started Extra networking commands..
[  OK  ] Started Name Service Cache Daemon.
[  OK  ] Started DHCP Client.
[  OK  ] Reached target Network.
[  OK  ] Reached target Multi-User System.


<<< Welcome to NixOS 15.09.git.ba8f33fM (armv7l) - ttySAC2 >>>

sd-card images

you can download the odroid xu4 nixos image here:

  1. https://nixcloud.io/downloads/armv7l/odroid_xu4-nixos-15.09.git.ba8f33fM-kernel-4.2.0-sd-card_image-2015-12-02-3gb-disk.dd.xz

    sha256sum 06d909038a6369c52d162aaa655aabe40b52b129faf7d3579a35171b564b0515  
  2. install it on a sd-card using xz and dd

    xz --decompress --keep --stdout sha256 odroid_xu4-nixos-15.09.git.ba8f33fM-kernel-4.2.0-sd-card_image-2015-12-02-3gb-disk.dd.xz | dd bs=4M of=/dev/sdN
  3. afterwards resize the second partition to the maximum size of your partition. i would recommend to use at least 8gb but better 16gb sd-cards

    gparted /dev/sdN

finally plug the sd-card into your odroid xu4 and boot from it. should work out of the box.

tooling

picocom

i'm usually using picocom instead of 'screen' or 'minicom' for accessing the serial console like this:

$ picocom /dev/ttyUSB0 -b 115200

however, i don't want to use the root-user so i added a few lines to my udev rules using services.udev.extraRules:

  services.udev.extraRules = ''
    #Bus 001 Device 005: ID 067b:2303 Prolific Technology, Inc. PL2303 Serial Port
    ATTRS{idVendor}=="067b", ATTRS{idProduct}=="2303", MODE="666", SYMLINK+="ttyUSB-odroid-u3-1"
    #Bus 003 Device 055: ID 10c4:ea60 Cygnal Integrated Products, Inc. CP210x UART Bridge / myAVR mySmartUSB light
    ATTRS{idVendor}=="10c4", ATTRS{idProduct}=="ea60", MODE="666", SYMLINK+="ttyUSB-odroid-u3-2"
  };

afterwards you can use 'picocom /dev/ttyUSB-odroid-u3-2 -b 115200' as a none-root user. i wish we had that also for device nodes like /dev/sda and similar which is 'simple' to use.

resizing partitions

resizing paritions & resizing filesystems is easy if you are using gparted! but how to resize a partition which is inside a image which was created using 'dd'? well, use the loop luke!

mount the image using 'losetup':

losetup -f --show -P odroid_xu4_kernel-4.2.0-sd-card-2015-12-02-16gb.dd    
loop0                 7:0    0   3,4G  0 loop  
├─loop0p1           259:2    0   114M  0 loop  
└─loop0p2           259:3    0   3,2G  0 loop  

then you can use gparted on /dev/loop0 or modify the partitions using /dev/loop0p1 and so on.

after you finished your edits, unmount it:

losetup -d /dev/loop0

conclusion

getting nixos to work with the U3/XU4 was quite an adventure and not possible without dezgeg and virics help via IRC. also their efforts in creating all the nixos-ARM specific packages is great.