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tour of nix

14 Nov 2015


lately i’ve been working with emscripten 1.29.10 and i compiled nix-instantiate from c++ to javascript. why?

nix is a tricky programming language to get into. the motivation for ‘a tour of nix’ was to make it easier for new developers to get into nix. compiling nix-instantiate and later nix-repl to javascript might be enablers for new technologies like:

while the former points are all interesting targets in itself, this posting will focus on ‘a tour of nix’ and ‘emscripten’. A tour of Nix is a html5/javascript based tutorial about the nix programming language.

the 'A touf of nix'-webpage


nix-instantiate is a very good candidate among the various nix-tools. since emscripten emulates a complete POSIX-filesystem we

  1. clone nix/nixpkgs

    git clone
    git clone

    ‘nix’ contains nix-instantiate which we want to compile to javascript while ‘nixpkgs’ will be bundled with nix-instantiate.js so we can use the lib functions.

  2. development environment

    to play with the code, run:

    nix-shell --pure -p vim emscripten nodejs autoconf automake pkgconfig perlPackages.DBDSQLite perl perlPackages.WWWCurl  bzip2 zlib libtool bison flex curl sqlite git file

    note: we will be using llvm instead of gcc since emscripten is llvm only!

  3. learn about nix-instantiate dependencies

    ./ =nix-instantiate dependencies.jpg lists the dependencies of the vanialla nix-instantiate

    the dependencies of nix-instantiate

    what had to be changed:

    • the build-system was dramatically changed to use:

      • only builds nix-instantiate (all other targets removed)
      • static linking for all libs (.a instead of .so)
      • O3, -g0
    • source code changes: libraries were removed from nix-instantiate

      • bzip2, curl, ssl, sqlite3, dl, z, m, crypto, gc
      • removed sigaction(..) code
      • libstore requirement from nix-instantiate was removed
      • various other changes to make nix compile and work in a browser
    • bundle (a bash script) was added to src/nix-instantiate

    to test emscripten a simple ‘hello world’ example was created.

  4. the build using ‘./bundle’

    emcc -g0 -O3 nix-instantiate.bc ../libexpr/libnixexpr.bc ../libstore/libnixstore.bc ../boost/format/libnixformat.bc ../libutil/libnixutil.bc ../libmain/libnixmain.bc \
      -o nix-instantiate.js \
      --preload-file nix/derivation.nix \
      --preload-file nixpkgs \
      --preload-file test.nix \
      -s NO_EXIT_RUNTIME=1 \ #important
      -s INVOKE_RUN=0 \ #important
      -s ALLOW_MEMORY_GROWTH=1 \ # importatnt!
      -s TOTAL_MEMORY=350777216 \ # could be less i suppose
      --pre-js pre-js.js \ # important for nix-instantiate (to remove the spinner)
      -s DISABLE_EXCEPTION_CATCHING=0 \ # important for nix-instantiate (when the expression creates an error)
      --llvm-lto 3
  5. after you executed ./bundle:

    you can test if everything went fine, if it built a new version of:

    • nix-instantiate.js
    • nix-instantiate.js.mem
  6. nix-instantiate.js usage

    index.html includes nix-instantiate.js and calls it every time we want to evaluate a nix expression

    <script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8">
      var runNix = function() {
        var start = new Date().getTime();
        console.log("running runNix()");
        document.getElementById('runInfo').innerHTML = "computation in progress";
        document.getElementById('output').value = "";
        Module['print'] = function(text) {
          Module['return'] = text + '\n'; 
          document.getElementById('output').value += text;
          document.getElementById('runInfo').innerHTML = "";
          var end = new Date().getTime();
          var time = end - start;
          console.log('Execution time: ' + time + ' ms');
        Module['printErr'] = function(text) {
          text = text.replace("[31;1m", "");
          text = text.replace("[1m", "");
          text = text.replace("[1m", "");
          text = text.replace("[0m","");
          text = text.replace("[0m","");
          text = text.replace("/test.nix","line");
          text = text.replace("/test.nix","line");
          text = text.replace("/test.nix","line");
          Module['return'] = text + '\n'; 
          document.getElementById('runInfo').innerHTML = "";
          document.getElementById('output').value += text;
        var input_text = editor.getValue();
        FS.writeFile('/test.nix', input_text, {encoding: 'utf8'});
        Module['arguments'] = ['-I', 'nixpkgs=nixpkgs', '--eval', '--strict', '--show-trace', '/test.nix'];

    this is actually similar to calling nix-instantiate from the shell:

    nix-instantiate -I nixpkgs=nixpkgs/ --eval, --strict, --show-trace, /test.nix    

    note: i want to point out that callMain was used over cwrap

  7. code optimization

    check your webserver has compression enabled!

    services.httpd = {
      enable = true;
      logPerVirtualHost = true;
      hostName = "";
      extraModules = [
        { name = "php5"; path = "${pkgs.php}/modules/"; }
        { name = "deflate"; path = "${pkgs.apacheHttpd}/modules/"; }
      virtualHosts = [
          hostName = "";
          serverAliases = [ "" "" ];
          documentRoot = "/www/";
          extraConfig = ''
              RedirectMatch ^/$ /main/page
              <Directory "/www/">
                Options -Indexes
                AllowOverride None
                Require all granted
              SetOutputFilter DEFLATE

    this is how we at nixcloud set up mod_deflate for apache, which curiously is not a default option. this reduces the 30mb download to 6mb only!

  8. html5 specialities

    we got a working browser history, so you can use the ‘back’ and ‘forward’ buttons of your browser to navigate the page

     // implement browser forward and back button actions
     window.addEventListener("popstate", function(e) {
       var id = getURLParameter("id");
       var diff = id - current_question - 1;
     // update current question and modify the window.history
     var change_question = function(myinput) {
       window.history.pushState('', '',  window.location.pathname + '?id=' + (current_question + 1));



i especially wanted to thank aidanhs, the author of empython, for all his time with very valuable hints on how to address my problems.

happy nix-learning from paul and joachim! also thanks a lot for the irc support on emscripten from:!